The tubing of the Viennese horn is 55% conical and narrower than the most commonly used double horn in F/Bb. The so-called F crook is not a fixed part of the Viennese horn but is detachable. Other tunings are used especially for natural horn parts. The three valves are Viennese valves (twin-piston valves) and are operated by the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers of the left hand. In contrast to the Vienna horn the double horn in F/Bb has rotary valves with an optional additional stopping valve. The higher pitch that results from stopping on the Viennese horn is not compensated for by a stopping valve but by playing the note a half tone lower.
By placing his hand in the bell the player can make very subtle adjustments to the intonation. This intonation check is also what produces the typically soft and romantic sound of the French horn. Intonation can also be controlled by means of the embouchure (altering lip tension).
Aerophone, brass wind instrument
Brass, gold brass, nickel silver
Length 3.7 m, coiled several times, predominantly conical, detachable F crook, length 105–120 cm
Narrow, inner diameter in cylindrical tubing approx. 10.8 mm
Three Vienna valves
Rim diameter 30.5 cm, widely flared and parabolically curved